TOC  |  Lytes  


Causes of Hypernatremia                      Ref:  Outlines of Clinical Medicine

  1. Dehydration - inadequate fluid intake to replace dermal, respiratory, or GI loss of fluid  
    Gastrointestinal causes: Vomiting or diarrhea or use of osmotic cathartic agents as lactulose; Nasogastric drainage; Enterocutaneous fistula; Tube feeding in semi conscious pt increased osmotic load 
    Cutaneous causes: Burns or excessive sweating  
  2. Drugs:  Infusion of hypertonic Sodium salts, Hypertonic saline, Na-bicarbonate; hypertonic dialysis
  3. Hyperaldosteronism, Cushing syndrome - rare causes
  4. Diabetes Insipididus (DI)
  5. Renal Failure (Inability to filter Na+) & Other Renal causes: Loop diuretics, Osmotic diuresis (glucose, urea, mannitol), Postobstructive diuresis, Polyuric , phase of acute tubular necrosis, Intrinsic renal disease
  6. Coma (Disordered ADH regulation; absence of thirst mechanism)