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Hypercoagulability Differential Diagnosis                                                                                                      

1. Malignancy

2. Pregnancy

3. Oral contraceptives (usually with smoking or other hypercoagulable state)

4. Nephrotic syndrome

5. Myeloproliferative Disorders

6. Hyperlipidemias

7. Diabetes mellitus

8. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH): abnormal platelet membrane

9. Immobilization

10. Postoperative (immobilization, bed rest)      Back to top |   Home Page

11. Vasculitis and Collagen Vascular Disease

12. Hyperviscosity syndromes

13. Deficiency/Dysfunction of Anticoagulants

14. Homocystinemia and Homocysteinuria

15. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (antibody mediated)      Back to top |   Home Page

16. Anti-Neoplastic agents (vascular endothelial damage; HUS/TTP)

17. Obesity

18. Clotting Pathways

19. Smoking (usually exacerbates underlying hypercoagulable state)

20. Combinations of hypercoagulation risks are additive or synergistic

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Outlines in Clinical Medicine on Physicians' Online   2000   
E-Medicine  Hyperviscosity Syndrome 
Nachman RL and Silverstein R. 1993. Ann Intern Med. 119(8):819
Fermo I, D'Angelo V, Paroni R, et al. 1995. Ann Intern Med. 123(10):747
van der Bom JG, Bots ML, Haverkate F, et al. 1996. Ann Intern Med. 125(4):265
Price DT and Ridker PM. 1997. Ann Intern Med. 127(10):895
Iacoviello L, Di Castelnuovo A, de Knijff P, et al. 1998. NEJM. 338(2):79

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See Hypercoagulable Disorder Review (Arch IM April 23, 2001)

Anticardiolipin Antibodies (ACA)
belong to the antiphospholipid antibody group of proteins & may have anticoagulant activity (similar to that of lupus anticoagulants)

The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
is characterized by recurrent clinical events: noninflammatory thrombosis of small or large arteries and/or veins & fetal loss, with demonstrable antiphospholiid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibody or lupus anticoagulant).  The syndrome is primary if SLE is not present.