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Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)

Be aware that the U.S Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and dietary supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products containing or claiming to contain ginkgo. Decisions to use herbs or supplements should be carefully considered. Individuals using prescription drugs should discuss taking herbs or supplements with a pharmacist or health care professional before starting.


Scientists have studied ginkgo for the following health problems:

Peripheral vascular disease, claudication
Intermittent claudication is a painful condition caused by clogged arteries in the legs. When people walk, not enough blood gets to muscles, and this can cause cramps or pain. Multiple studies suggest that taking ginkgo by mouth may reduce pain and increase the distance that patients with intermittent claudication can walk without pain. However, conflicting data also exist.
Some studies have found that taking ginkgo may slow the progress of Alzheimer's disease or dementia associated with multiple strokes. Many of these studies have had flaws with their design. More studies are needed to determine which patients may benefit the most from ginkgo and what dose of ginkgo provides the best effects.
Cerebral insufficiency
Cerebral insufficiency is a term often used in Europe to describe people with decreased blood flow to the brain caused by clogged arteries. Early evidence suggests that ginkgo may improve short-term memory and concentration and reduce dizziness, headaches and mood disturbances in people with cerebral insufficiency.
Ischemic stroke
Several studies suggest that taking ginkgo by mouth may improve recovery from strokes that result from decreased blood flow to certain areas of the brain. Different studies, however, have produced results that do not agree with each other. Better studies are needed to provide more definitive answers in the future.
Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
Multiple small, poor-quality studies report reduced ringing in the ears after treatment with ginkgo in people with chronic tinnitus. However, recent well-designed studies found no improvements with ginkgo. It remains unclear if ginkgo is helpful for this condition.
Upper digestive tract malignant tumors
Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides (GBEP) capsule preparation has been studied for upper digestive tract malignant tumors of middle and late stage with positive results. However, further research is needed before a recommendation can be made.
Acute mountain sickness
Ginkgo biloba has been studied for acute mountain sickness and has not shown definitive benefit over a prescription drug.
Mood and cognition in postmenopausal women
Based on early study of chronic administration, Gincosan appeared to have no beneficial effects on mood, anxiety, or sleepiness in postmenopausal women.
Early study results show that ginkgo may help vertigo. Further research is needed to confirm these results.
Acute hemorrhoidal attacks
In early study, gingko was shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with acute hemorrhoidal attacks. Further research is needed to confirm these results.
Sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs
Based on early study, ginkgo does not seem to help sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs.
Ginkgo has been studied in humans for many other conditions, including acute cochlear deafness, acute hemorrhoidal attack, acute mountain sickness, age-related memory impairment, allergic contact dermatitis, arteritis, asphyxia, asthenic disorders, asthma, circulatory encephalopathy, color vision, coronary heart disease, cognitive performance, depression, decreased sex drive, dizziness, erectile dysfunction, fibromyalgia, glaucoma, macular degeneration, multiple sclerosis, pancreatic cancer, premenstrual syndrome, sexual function, sudden hearing loss, unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss, vaginal dryness, vascular vestibular disorders, and vertiginous syndrome. In addition, it has been studied in humans to determine if it reduces the side effects associated with chemotherapy. However, there is not enough evidence to make a recommendation for using ginkgo for any of these purposes.

Early research suggests that ginkgo may improve memory, but studies have been small with flaws in their designs, and results have disagreed with each other.

Unproven Uses    
Ginkgo has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult with a health care professional before taking ginkgo for any unproven use.

Acute cerebral infarction
Age-related macular disease
Alcohol intoxication
Alzheimer's disease
Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction
Autoimmune disorders
Bladder problems
Blood clots
Bronchial asthma
Chest pain
Cocaine dependence
Cochleovestibular impairment
Colorectal cancer
Congestive heart failure
Coronary heart disease
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Enhancement of female sexual function
Enhancement of learning
Enhancement of memory
Erectile dysfunction
Freckle removal
Gastric cancer
Heart disease
Hepatitis B
Irregular heart beats
Labor induction
Mental functioning
Mild cognitive impairment
Mood disturbances
Nerve pain
Normal tension glaucoma
Oxidative stress
Postmenopausal symptoms
Postphlebitic syndrome
Primary chronic venous insufficiency
Raynaud's disease
Respiratory (lung) illnesses
Seasonal affective disorder
Skin irritation
Trophic lesions
Varicose veins
Vestibular organ peripheral lesion syndrome

Potential Dangers      


Side Effects

Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding

Interactions with drugs, supplements and other herbs have not been thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported in scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with a health care professional or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary supplements.
Interactions With Drugs

Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements


The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts of each ingredient and may not be effective. Appropriate dosing should be discussed with a health care professional before starting therapy; always read the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for unproven uses should be approached cautiously, because scientific information is limited in these areas.

Some natural medicine experts recommend ginkgo products that contain 24 percent flavoglycosides and 6 percent terpenes. Beneficial effects may not be seen for four to six weeks.

Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)

Children (Younger Than 18): The dosing and safety of ginkgo have not been studied thoroughly in children, and use of this herb is not recommended. Seizures have been reported in children.


Although ginkgo has been suggested for many conditions, it has been most studied as a treatment for peripheral vascular disease, dementia and cerebrovascular insufficiency. Ginkgo has not been proven for any other health condition. It should be avoided in pregnant or breast-feeding women and in children. If you are considering using ginkgo but have diabetes or seizures or are prone to bleeding disorders, you should discuss this with a health care professional. Beneficial effects may not be seen until ginkgo is used for four to six weeks. Consult a health care professional immediately if you experience side effects.

The information in this monograph was prepared by the professional staff at Natural Standard, based on thorough systematic review of scientific evidence. The material was reviewed by the Faculty of the Harvard Medical School with final editing approved by Natural Standard.


  1. Natural Standard: An organization that produces scientifically based reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) topics
  2. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM): A division of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services dedicated to research

Selected Scientific Studies: Ginkgo

Natural Standard reviewed more than 965 articles to prepare the professional monograph from which this version was created.

Some of the more recent studies are listed below:

  1. Allain H, Raoul P, Lieury A, et al. Effect of two doses of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the dual-coading test in elderly subjects. Clin Ther 1993;15(3):549-558.
  2. Bal Dit Sollier C, Caplain H, Drouet L. No alteration in platelet function or coagulation induced by EGb761 in a controlled study. Clin Lab Haematol 2003;25(4):251-253.
  3. Bauer U. Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of arteriopathy of the lower extremities: a 65-week trial. Presse Med 1986;15(313):1546-1549.
  4. Benjamin J, Muir T, Briggs K, et al. A case of cerebral haemorrhage: can Ginkgo biloba be implicated? Postgrad Med J 2001;77(904):112-113.
  5. Burschka MA, Hassan HA, Reineke T, et al. Effect of treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (oral) on unilateral idiopathic sudden hearing loss in a prospective randomized double-blind study of 106 outpatients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2001;258(5):213-219.
  6. Castelli D, Colin L, Camel E, at al. Pretreatment of skin with a Ginkgo biloba extract/sodium carboxymethyl-btra-1,3-gluacn formulatin appears to inhibit the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis in man. Contact Dermatitis 1998;38(3):123-126.
  7. Cesarani A, Meloni F, Alpini D, et al. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders. Adv Ther 1998;15(5):291-304.
  8. Chen HS, Zhai F, Chu YF, et al. Clinical study on treatment of patients with upper digestive tract malignant tumors of middle and late stage with Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides capsule preparation Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2003;Sep, 1(3):189-191.
  9. Chen K, Zhou WQ, Gao P. Clinical study on the effect of shuxuening tablet in treatment of coronary heart disease. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1996;16(1):24-26.
  10. Cieza A, Maier P, Poppel E. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on mental functioning in healthy volunteers. Arch Med Res 2003;34(5):373-381.
  11. Davydov L, Stirling AL. Stevens-Johnson syndrome with Ginkgo biloba. J Herbal Pharmacother 2001;13:65-69.
  12. Destro MW, Speranzini MB, Cavalheiro Filho C, et al. Bilateral haematoma after rhytidoplasty and blepharoplasty following chronic use of Ginkgo biloba. Br J Plast Surg 2005;Jan, 58(1):100-101.
  13. Drabaek H, Petersen JR, Winberg N, et al. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients with intermittent claudication. Ugeskr Laeger 1996;158(27):3928-3931.
  14. Drew S, Davies E. Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trial. Br Med J 2001;322(7278):73.
  15. Dubreuil C. Therapeutic trial in acute cochlear deafness: a comparative study of Ginkgo biloba extract and nicergoline. Presse Med 1986;15(31):1559-1561.
  16. Engelsen J, Nielsen JD, Hansen KF. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in patients on long-term warfarin treatment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trail. Ugeskr Laeger 2003;165(18):1868-1871.
  17. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Ginkgo biloba for dementia: a systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Clin Drug Invest 1999;17(4):301-308.
  18. Evans JR. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD001775.
  19. Fies P, Dienel A. Ginkgo extract in impaired vision: treatment with special extract EGb 761 of impaired vision due to dry senile macular degeneration. Wien Med Wochenschr 2002;152(15-16):423-426.
  20. Fraunfelder FW. Ocular side effects from herbal medicines and nutritional supplements. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;Oct, 138(4):639-647.
  21. Garg RK, Nag D, Agrawal A. A double blind placebo controlled trial of ginkgo biloba extract in actue cerebral ischaemia. J Assoc Physicians India 1995;43(11):760-763.
  22. Gertsch JH, Basnyat B, Johnson EW, et al. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: the prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT). Br Med J 2004;328(7443):797.
  23. Gertsch JH, Seto TB, Mor J, et al. Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of sever acute mountain sickness (AMS) starting one day before rapid ascent. High Alt Med Biol 2002;3(1):29-37.
  24. Grassel E. Effect of Ginkgo-biloba extract on mental performance: double-blind study using computerized measurement conditions in patients with cerebral insufficiency. Fortschr Med 1992;110(5):73-76.
  25. Haguenauer JP, Cantenot F, Koskas H, et al. Treatment of equilibrium disorders with Ginkgo biloba extract: a multicenter double-blind drug vs. placebo study. Presse Med 1986;15(31):1569-1572.
  26. Haller CA, Meier KH, Olson KR. Seizures reported in association with use of dietary supplements. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2005;43(1):23-30.
  27. Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutr Neurosci 2004;Oct-Dec, 7(5-6):325-333.
  28. Hauns B, Haring B, Kohler S, et al. Phase II study of combined 5-fluorouracil/Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) therapy in 5-fluorouracil pretreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Phytother Res 2001;15(1):34-38.
  29. Hauns B, Haring B, Kohler S, et al. Phase II study with 5-fluorouracil and ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49(12):1030-1034.
  30. Hemmeter U, Annen B, Bischof R, et al. Polysomnographic effects of adjuvant ginkgo biloba therapy in patients with major depression medicated with trimipramine. Pharmacopsychiatry 2001;34(2):59.
  31. Hep A, Robek O, Skricka T. Treatment of hemorrhoids from the viewpoint of the gastroenterologist: personal experience with the Ginkor Fort preparation. Vnitr Lek 2000;46(5):282-285.
  32. Hilton M, Stuart E. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(2):CD003852.
  33. Ho LJ, Lai JH. Chinese herbs as immunomodulators and potential disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in autoimmune disorders. Curr Drug Metab 2004;Apr, 5(2):181-192.
  34. Hoffmann F, Beck C, Schutz A, et al. Ginkgo extract EGb 761 (tenobin)/HAES versus naftidrofuryl (Dusodril)/HAES. A randomized study of therapy of sudden deafness. Laryngorhinootologie 1994;73(3):149-152.
  35. Horsch S, Walther C. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD): a review based on randomized, controlled studies. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;Feb, 42(2):63-72.
  36. Ito TY, Trant AS, Polan ML. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27(5):541-549.
  37. Ivaniv OP. The results of using different forms of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the combined treatment of patients with circulatory encephalopathy. Lik Sprava 1998;(8):123-128.
  38. Jacoby D, Mohler ER 3rd. Drug treatment of intermittent claudication. Drugs 2004;64(15):1657-1670.
  39. Janssens D, Michiels C, Guillaume G, et al. Increase in circulating endothelial cells in patients with primary chronic venous insufficiency: protective effect of Ginkor Fort in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1999;33(1):7-11.
  40. Jezova D, Duncko R, Lassanova M, et al. Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteers. J Physiol Pharmacol 2002;53(3):337-348.
  41. Kalus JS, Piotrowski AA, Fortier CR, et al. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic effects of short-term Ginkgo biloba. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37(3):345-349.
  42. Kampman K, Majewska MD, Tourian K, et al. A pilot trial of piracetam and ginkgo biloba for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Addict Behav 2003;28(3):437-448.
  43. Kang BJ, Lee SJ, Kim MD, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17(6):279-284.
  44. Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, et al. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or muti-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996;29(2):47-56.
  45. Keltner NL, Zielinski AL, Hardin MS. Drugs used for cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2001;Jan-Mar, 37(1):31-34.
  46. Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;151(4):416-423.
  47. Kohler S, Funk P, Kieser M. Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2004;Jun, 15(4):303-309.
  48. Kurz A, Van Baelen B. Ginkgo biloba compared with cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of dementia: a review based on meta-analyses by the cochrane collaboration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;18(2):217-226. Epub 2004;Jun 28.
  49. Lanthony P, Cosson JP. The course of color vision in early diabetic retinopathy treated with Ginkgo biloba extract: a preliminary double-blind versus placebo study. J Fr Ophtalmol 1988;11(10):671-674.
  50. Le Bars PL, Velasco FM, Ferguson JM, et al. Influence of the severity of cognitive impairment on the effect of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychobiology 2002;45(1):19-26.
  51. Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia: North American EGb Study Group. JAMA 1997;278(16):1327-1332.
  52. Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2000;11(4):230-237.
  53. Lebuisson DA, Leroy L, Rigal G. Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract: a preliminary double-blind drug vs. placebo study. Presse Med 1986;15(31):1556-1558.
  54. Li MH, Liu YH, Yang BY. Clinical observation on treatment of asthma in moderate degree with fluticasone inhalation combined with jinacon. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2001;21(11):819-821.
  55. Li MH, Liu YH, Yang BY. Effects of ginkgo leave concentrated oral liquor in treating asthma. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1997;17(4):216-218.
  56. Lingaerde O, Foreland AR, Magnusson A. Can winter depression be prevented by Ginkgo biloba extract? A placebo-controlled trial. Acgta Psychiatr Scand 1999;100(1):62-66.
  57. Lis-Balchin M. Parallel placebo-controlled clinical study of a mixture of herbs sold as a remedy for cellulite. Phytother Res 1999;13(7):627-629.
  58. Lister RE. An open, pilot study to evaluate the potential benefits of coenzyme Q10 combined with Ginkgo biloba extract in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Inte Med Res 2002;30(2):195-199.
  59. Mahady GB. Ginkgo biloba: a review of quality, safety, and efficacy. Nutr Clin Care 2001;4(3):140-147.
  60. Milopol’skaia IM. Treatment of asthenic disorders with tanakan. Ter Arkh 2001;739(10):45-47.
  61. Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6(3):219-229.
  62. Moulton PL, Boyko LN, Fitzpatrick JL, et al. The effect of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male volunteers. Physiol Behav 2001;73(4):659-665.
  63. Muir AH, Robb R, McLaren M, et al. The use of Ginkgo biloba in Raynaud’s disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Vasc Med 2002;7(4):265-267.
  64. Neznamov GG, Teleshova ES, Siuniakov SA, et al. Effect of tanakan on psychphysiological status of patients with asthenic disorders. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2002;65(1):1923.
  65. Orendorz-Fraczkowska K, Pospiech L, Gawron W. Results of combined treatment for vestibular receptor impairment with physical therapy and Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb 761). Otolaryngol Pol 2002;56(1):83-88.
  66. Parsad D, Pandhi R, Juneja A. Effectiveness of oral Ginkgo biloba in treating limited, slowly spreading vitiligo. Clin Exp Dermatol 2003;28(3):285-287.
  67. Patra KK, Coffey CE. Implications of herbal alternative medicine for electroconvulsive therapy. J ECT 2004;Sep, 20(3):186-194.
  68. Peters H, Kieser M, Holscher U. Demonstration of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication: a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial. Vasa 1998;27(2):106-110.
  69. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2000;108(4):276-281.
  70. Polan ML, Hochberg RB, Trant AS, Wuh HC. Estrogen bioassay of ginseng extract and ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for the enhancement of female sexual function. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2004;May, 13(4):427-430.
  71. Quaranta L, Bettelli S, Uva MG, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2003;110(2):359-362.
  72. Reisser CH, Weidauer H. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 or pentoxifylline for the treatment of sudden deafness: a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind study. Acta Otolaryngol 2001;121(5):579-584.
  73. Rejali D, Sivakumar A, Balaji N. Ginkgo biloba does not benefit patients with tinnitus: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Clin Otolaryngol 2004;29(3):226-231.
  74. Roncin JP, Schwartz F, D’Arbigny P. EGb 761 in control of acute mountain sickness and vascular reactivity to cold exposure. Aviat Space Environ Med 1996;67(5):445-452.
  75. Santos RF, Galduroz JC, Barbieri A, et al. Cognitive performance, SPECT, and blood viscosity in elderly nondemented people using Ginkgo biloba. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003;36(4):127-133.
  76. Schneider B, Klein P, Weiser M. Treatment of vertigo with a homeopathic complex remedy compared with usual treatments: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Arzneimittelforschung 2005;55(1):23-29.
  77. Singh B, Song H, Liu XD, et al. Dangshen (Codonopsis pilosula) and Bai guo (Gingko biloba) enhance learning and memory. Altern Ther Health Med 2004;Jul-Aug, 10(4):52-56.
  78. Solomon PR, Adams F, Silver A, et al. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288(7):835-840.
  79. Sumboonnanonda K, Lertsithichai P. Clinical study of the Ginko biloba–Troxerutin-Heptaminol Hce in the treatment of acute hemorrhoidal attacks. J Med Assoc Thai 2004;87(2):137-142.
  80. Tamborini A, Taurelle R. Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 1993;88(7-9):447-457.
  81. Trick L, Boyle J, Hindmarch I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation and discontinuation on activities of daily living and mood in free living older volunteers. Phytother Res 2004;Jul, 18(7):531-537.
  82. van Dongen M, van Rossum E, Kessels A, et al. Ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Epidemiol 2003;56(4):367-376.
  83. van Dongen M, van Rossum E, Kessels A, et al. The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48(10):1183-1194.
  84. Wang XM, Fu H, Liu GX. Clinical study on treatment of mild cognitive impairment by modified wuzi yanzong granule. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2004;24(5):392-3395.
  85. Weber W. Ginkgo not effective for memory loss in elderly. Lancet 2000;356:1333.
  86. Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004;Dec, 19(8):545-548.
  87. Xu AH, Chen HS, Sun BC, et al. Therapeutic mechanism of ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2003;9(11):2424-2427.
  88. Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Zhang PY, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(11):878-883.

Last updated July 11, 2005