TOC | Pulm

PLEURAL EFFUSION            see  Differential Diagnosis

A. Transudates: P-protein<3.0, P/S protein<0.5, P-LDH<200, P/S LDH<0.6

  1. CHF
  2. Nephrotic syndrome
  3. Cirrhosis with ascites
  4. Meigs' syndrome of ovarian tumor (benign or malignant) with ascites
  5. Peritoneal dialysis

B. Exudates: P-protein>3.0, P/S protein>0.5, P-LDH>200, P/S LDH>0.6

  1. Para pneumonic effusion (viral, bacterial, fungal)
  2. Pulm. infarction
  3. Neoplasm
  4. Collagen diseases: Lupus erythromatoses, RA
  5. Subphrenic inflammatory conditions
  6. Pancreatitis
  7. Hypoplasia or obstruction of lymphatics

C. Hemorrhagic

  1. Trauma: chest trauma, subclavian vein catheter leakage
  2. Pulm. infarction
  3. Neoplasms
  4. Tuberculosis

D. Lipid

  1. Chylous: rupture or obstruction of thoracic or lymphatic ducts
  2. Cholesterol: any long standing cellular effusion

E. Empyema: WBC pus, organisms, pH<7.3


Evaluatinig Pleural Effusions - Jeffrey B. Rubins, Gene L. Colice
PostGrad Med  May 1, 1999;105:39



Pleural effusion - differential diagnosis        REF:  DynaMed 2009

Updated 2009 Jun 26 05:12 PM: created 2009 Jun 25

Infectious Causes

Bacterial infections:

Viral infections:



Iatrogenic Causes

Iatrogenic causes:

Medical Causes

Pulmonary conditions:

Cardiac conditions:

Hepatic conditions:

Pancreatic conditions:

Autoimmune conditions:

Other conditions:



Trauma and iatrogenic causes:

Congenital causes:

Miscellaneous causes: