Heart Failure

Shannon Winakur, M.D.
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Mariell Jessup, M.D.
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Definition/Key Clinical Features
Differential Diagnosis
Best Tests
Best Therapy
Best References


Definition/Key Clinical Features


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Differential Diagnosis

Classification by Disorder

Classification by Underlying Disease Process


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Best Tests


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Best Therapy

General Management

Stage A

Stage B

Stage C

Stage D

Drug Therapy

Loop Diuretics

Aldosterone Inhibitors

ACE Inhibitors

Beta Blockers

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers

Invasive Therapies

Revascularization Procedures

Mitral Valve Replacement

Mechanical Devices to Reduce Ventricular Wall Stress

Surgical Excision of Infarcted Tissue

Implantable Devices


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Best References

Gomberg-Maitland M, et al: Arch Intern Med 161:342, 2001 [PMID 11176759]

Hunt SA, et al: Circulation 112:e154, 2005 [PMID 16160202]

McMurray J, et al: Circulation 105:2099, 2002 [PMID 11980691]

McMurray J, et al: Circulation 105:2223, 2002 [PMID 11994259]

Shannon Winakur, M.D., has no commercial relationships with manufacturers of products or providers of services discussed in this module. Mariell Jessup, M.D., has received grants for clinical research from, and served as an advisor or consultant to, Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.; Medtronic, Inc.; Guidant Corporation; GlaxoSmithKline, Inc.; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; and Scios, Inc.

March 2006


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