TOC | ID | STD
Lymphogranuloma Venereum 2006
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is caused by C. trachomatis serovars L1, L2, or L3 .
Symptoms & Signs:
The most common clinical manifestation of LGV among heterosexuals is
A self-limited genital ulcer or papule sometimes occurs at the site of inoculation. However, by the time patients seek care, the lesions might have disappeared. Rectal exposure in women or MSM might result in proctocolitis (including mucoid and/or hemorrhagic rectal discharge, anal pain, constipation, fever, and/or tenesmus). LGV is an invasive, systemic infection, and if it is not treated early, LGV proctocolitis might lead to chronic, colorectal fistulas and strictures. Genital and colorectal LGV lesions might also develop secondary bacterial infection or might be coinfected with other sexually and nonsexually transmitted pathogens.
is based on clinical suspicion, epidemiologic information, and the exclusion of other etiologies (of procto-colitis, inguinal lymphadenopathy, or genital or rectal ulcers), along with C. trachomatis testing, if available.
Genital and lymph node specimens (i.e., lesion swab or bubo aspirate) may be tested for C. trachomatis by culture, direct immunofluorescence, or nucleic acid detection. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for C. trachomatis are not FDA-cleared for testing rectal specimens. Additional procedures (e.g., genotyping) are required for differentiating LGV from non-LGV C. trachomatis but are not widely available.
Chlamydia serology (complement fixation titers >1:64) can support the diagnosis in the appropriate clinical context. Comparative data between types of serologic tests are lacking, and the diagnostic utility of serologic methods other than complement fixation and some microimmunofluorescence procedures has not been established. Serologic test interpretation for LGV is not standardized, tests have not been validated for clinical proctitis presentations, and C. trachomatis serovar-specific serologic tests are not widely available.
In the absence of specific LGV diagnostic testing, patients with a clinical syndrome consistent with LGV, including proc-tocolitis or genital ulcer disease with lymphadenopathy, should be treated for LGV as described in this report.
Treatment of Lymphogranuloma Venereum 2006
Treatment cures infection and prevents ongoing tissue damage, although tissue reaction to the injection can result in scarring. Buboes might require aspiration through intact skin or incision and drainage to prevent the formation of inguinal/ femoral ulcerations. Doxycycline is the preferred treatment.
Patients should be followed clinically until signs and symptoms have resolved.
Management of Sex Partners
Persons who have had sexual contact with a patient who has LGV within the 60 days before onset of the patients symptoms should be examined, tested for urethral or cervical chlamydial infection, and treated with a standard chlamydia regimen (azithromycin 1 gm orally x 1 or doxycycline 100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days). The optimum contact interval is unknown; some specialists use longer contact intervals.